The United States is one of the few countries in the world that allows surrogacy legally. Of the 50 states within the U.S, 40 states are surrogate friendly, especially in California. Whether the intended parents are traditional couples, single, or new conception families (LGBT), legal parental rights can be obtained. This opens the doors to many possibilities for families who are unable to carry their own baby due to age or many other reasons.
PMI keeps abundance of IVF clinics and third-party reproductive center resources in the United States. From choosing a Surrogate to the full set of legal documents after the birth of a newborn. Our dedicated team will be able to provide you with the VIP experience and guiding you every step of the way.
Our team at PMI has assisted a lot of Intended Parents on their path to parenthood through egg donation and surrogacy.
*We carefully recruit and screen our surrogates and donors
*Exclusive matching assistance from start to finish
*Overlook the relationship between the intended parents and Surrogates
*Continuous support and guidance
*Collaborate and arrangement with all professionals: doctors, lawyers, psychologist, insurance agents, etc.
*Establishing Trust Account/Escrow Account
Conditions for a woman to be a surrogate mother, How to recruit a surrogate mother
The most important factor in surrogacy is the selection of a surrogate mother. Pacific Miracle's requirements for women who are eligible to become surrogate mothers and how we recruit surrogate mothers are as follows.
We do not actually adopt all women who want to become surrogate mothers.
Requirements for Women to be a Surrogate Mother
*All surrogate mothers must be between 21 and 38 years old and have given birth before.
*At least one previous pregnancy and delivery, currently raising children on her own and having at least one child.
*Have no complications from previous childbirths.
*You must be a U.S. citizen or have the right to work legally in the U.S.
*Not eligible for federal or state government assistance.
*Must not have had more than 3 C-sections.
*Must have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or less.
*Non-smoker and drug user.
*Must be in good physical and mental health.
*Agree to psychological, drug, and criminal background screening.
*Have a partner, friend, or family member for support.
*Have given birth no more than five times.
Motivations of women who wish to become surrogate mothers
Motivations vary from individual to individual. For example
Someone who has a relative or friend who is infertile and has always wanted to help.
You have a job that involves working with children and you love children.
You have already started your own family but still want to enjoy your pregnancy.
You have a small child and do not want to go out to work.
Those who believe that pregnancy and childbirth are meaningful for their lives, as they can earn money and help others. The person is altruistic or not. In other words, whether or not there is a desire to do something good and to help others.
(1) A recruiter from Pacific Miracles will interview and accept applications.
(2) Applications will be accepted at any time on the Pacific Miracles corporate website.
(3) We accept applications from surrogacy support groups.
(4) Place ads on surrogacy information websites.
(5) Place ads in magazines that are read at home (mainly for housewives).
(6) Referrals from surrogate mothers who have worked with us.
＊ We use a wide variety of methods. Since we select surrogate mothers from all over California, we are required to recruit them through many such exchanges.
Creating a Profile of the Surrogate Mother
The surrogate mother is required to complete a profile that Pacific Miracle has developed.
The contents of the profile include, to give a few examples
・Personal information such as address, name, age, occupation, family structure, ethnicity, etc.
・Health status of yourself and your family, pregnancy and childbirth experience, current number of children, family environment, etc.
・Why do you want to become a surrogate mother?
・If you are asked to be a surrogate mother, what kind of relationship do you wish to have with the client?
・Do you want to meet the child after the surrogacy is completed?
・What are your thoughts on abortion?
・If there is a multiple pregnancy, would you be willing to accept a fetal abortion if the IP wishes to have one?
・Will the family cooperate with you becoming a surrogate? Does the family agree?
The application is submitted to Pacific Miracle, along with photographs of her and family members.
Pacific Miracle will review the profile and notify those who are deemed suitable to become surrogate mothers that their registration is complete.
Interview with the surrogate mother after registration is completed
Once the surrogate mother's registration is complete, an in-person interview is conducted with the surrogate mother.
・The interview begins with an understanding of the entire process.
・Review of the profile
・Basic knowledge of surrogacy
・Confirm knowledge of medical treatments and medications required for the embryo transfer.
・Confirmation of willingness to be a surrogate mother.
・Check that the surrogate is willing to act responsibly.
・Observation of the surrogate mother's personality
・We will make a judgment as to whether or not the surrogate mother is qualified to be a surrogate mother.
＊Compatibility between the surrogate mother and the client is also an important point.
For example, it is important that both parties agree on whether or not they wish to be contacted after the birth. If the client wants to refrain from contacting the surrogate mother as much as possible after the birth, the surrogate mother must be willing to give priority to the client's feelings.
If the surrogate mother wants to stay in touch with the IP after the birth through photos and letters, we will refer her to a client who is willing to do so as much as possible.
It is common for many surrogate mothers and clients to maintain a close family relationship.
Agreement is also important, for example, on how many embryos to transfer at one time.
Some surrogate mothers are not allowed to perform Selective Reduction due to their religious beliefs.
These important details should be confirmed with the surrogate mother and the client in advance.
These important arrangements, including the doctor's opinion on the quality of the embryos and the risk of multiple pregnancy, will later be included in the surrogate contract by the attorney.
Decision as a surrogate mother
After the interview, a final decision as a surrogate mother is made, synthesizing the profile and interview. Then, after matching the surrogate with the client, a background check (criminal record, arrest record, address history, etc.), medical screening including uterine examination by an IVF doctor, blood and urine tests, uterine cancer test, etc., and psychological screening by a psychologist (mental check) are conducted. Only those women who pass the screening will actually be considered for surrogacy.
Surrogate Mother / Surrogacy / Egg Donor / Egg Donation
In the United States, surrogacy is the act of carrying and giving birth to a child on behalf of a client, and the woman is called a surrogate mother (Surrogate Mother - SM for short). The client's side is referred to as Intended Parents (IP).
Surrogacy and Surrogate Mother are divided into A and B below.
In Egg Donation, there are two methods: A.(2)(4) and C.(1) below, in which the egg of the egg donor (Egg Donor) and the sperm of the client (male) are fertilized in vitro, and the fertilized egg is transferred to the client's (female) uterus.
Many clients undergo programs A.(1), (2), and C.(1), so we will focus on these programs.
A. Gestational Surrogacy-GS
Gestational Surrogate Mother-GS Gestational Carrier-GC
(1) In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with the client's sperm and egg → Fertilized egg is transferred to the surrogate mother's uterus.
(2) In vitro fertilization (IVF) using the client's sperm and the egg donor's egg → the fertilized egg is transferred to the surrogate mother's uterus.
(3) IVF with the client's egg and sperm from a sperm bank (Sperm Bank) → tranfer the fertilized egg to the surrogate mother's uterus.
(4) IVF using the egg donor's egg and sperm from the sperm bank (Sperm Bank) → return the fertilized egg to the surrogate mother's uterus.
Note: IVF ... In Vitro Fertilization
B. Traditional Surrogacy
Traditional Surrogate Mother (Traditional Surrogate Mothe-TS Traditional Carrier-TC)
(1) The client's sperm is extracted and injected directly into the uterus by the surrogate mother herself at home.
(2) The client's sperm is removed and injected directly into the uterus by a doctor at a clinic.
First, discussing the types of clients, surrogate mothers, and egg donors who undergo the A.(1) and A.(2) programs, which are the most common cases.
In general, there are three types of persons who are suitable for surrogacy by A.(1) GS.
those who have been undergoing fertility treatment (artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, other tubal surgeries, etc.) for a long time and have not been able to conceive and bear a child.
*Patients with endometriosis or other conditions that may cause infertility in the endometrium.
*Those who have repeated scientific pregnancies or habitual miscarriages even after conceiving.
*Those whose uterus is malformed from birth (e.g., unicornuate uterus) and who have a high possibility of miscarriage even if they conceive from a gynecologist, and who have actually had repeated miscarriages. (In the case of a bicornuate uterus, surgical treatment is possible.)
* Those who have undergone more than three IVF cycles, and despite the implantation of high-quality fertilized eggs, have been unable to conceive and have been told by their fertility doctor that the cause of their problems is unknown.
＊There are various types of patients, and generalizations cannot be made.
Patients with heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, etc., who have been diagnosed by a specialist as having difficulty conceiving or giving birth due to life-threatening conditions.
have undergone surgery to remove the uterus (e.g., uterine cancer) or do not have a uterus at birth.
In case of A.(1) surrogate mother
・A child born from the implantation of a fertilized egg of the IP (client) to a surrogate mother is not related to the surrogate mother in any way, but is born to a child who is related to the IP.
Regardless of the IP's Ethnic (race, ethnicity), the IP can select any ethnic surrogate mother from women between the ages of about 21 and 38 years old.
In case of A.(2), surrogate mother and egg donor
・A child born from the implantation of a fertilized egg with sperm from the male side of the IP and an egg from the egg donor to the surrogate mother will be a child who is related to the male side of the IP and the egg donor. Therefore, depending on the ethnicity of the female side of the IP, the egg donor must be selected; if the IP (female side) is Japanese, the egg donor is often selected to be Japanese or other Asian (Chinese, Taiwanese, or Korean, etc.), depending on the client's preference. In some cases, ethnicity is not important.
Since the child is not related to the surrogate mother, any ethnic surrogate mother can be selected. The surrogate mother is a woman between the ages of 21 and 38, and the egg donor is a woman between the ages of 21 and 30.
A.(3),(4), and B.(1),(2) are available upon request.
C.(1) In vitro fertilization using the egg donor's egg and the client's sperm → transfer the fertilized egg to the client's uterus.
Even if IVF is able to produce a fertilized egg, it often fails to implant or conceive due to the poor quality of the egg due to the client's advanced age. In this way, if the client is an older woman (generally over 40 years of age), she may be unable to use her own eggs, her ovaries may not be functioning and ovulation may not occur even if ovulation induction is performed, or she may have an ovarian tumor and both ovaries are currently missing. If the client's eggs are not available for various reasons, but her uterus is healthy and she is able to conceive and give birth, IVF is performed with the egg donor's eggs and the client's sperm, and the fertilized eggs are implanted in her uterus.
The advantages in this case are
Although you are not related to the child, you will have the experience of carrying the child in your belly for nine months during the gestation period and giving birth yourself. This is a great advantage in that it is easier to feel a strong connection with the child.
In case of C.(1) Egg Donor
As with the egg donor in case A.(2), a child born from the implantation of a fertilized egg on the female side of the IP, using the sperm of the IP and the egg of the egg donor, will be a child related to the male side of the IP and to the egg donor. Therefore, the egg donor must be selected according to the ethnic difference of the IP (female). If the female IP is Japanese, the egg donor is often Japanese or other Asian (Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean, etc.), but depending on the client's preference, ethnicity may not be important. The egg donor is a woman between the ages of 21 and 30.
Below is a brief mention of B.(1) and (2) for reference.
In Traditional Surrogacy, U.S. doctors and agencies generally avoid handling the case.
This is because the child being born is a child related to the male IP and the surrogate mother (TS: Traditional Surrogate Mother). This may be taken as a very big fact for the surrogate mother. Since she is carrying her own child for nine months and then giving birth to the child, the surrogate mother must be very aware in her mind that the child will be the child of the IP and will be raised by the IP. The surrogate mother is a woman who has passed the psychological evaluation, so she understands all of this and is able to accept this fact. The Baby M case is an example of this. The Baby M case happened in New Jersey in the early days of surrogacy (1985). (The surrogate in the Baby M case had not passed a psychological evaluation.) Therefore, in most cases, Agencies encourage IPs to opt for egg donation surrogacy, i.e., A.(2), instead of TS.
B.(1) where the client's male sperm is extracted and injected directly into the uterus by the surrogate mother herself at home.
No doctor, and no medications are required.
B.(2) The client's male sperm is removed and injected directly into the uterus by a doctor at a clinic.
A method in which a fertility doctor administers medication and then inseminates the surrogate mother artificially to achieve pregnancy.
※The Baby M Case
The Baby M case in 1985 became a controversy at the center of many issues, including the legality of surrogacy, feminism, fathers' rights, and reproductive rights.
It began when Dr. William Stern and his wife, Dr. Elizabeth Stern, decided to start a family through surrogacy. Because Dr. Elizabeth Stern had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, the couple, concerned about the health of Elizabeth and their unborn baby, opted to have a surrogate mother to carry their child. The Sterns entered into a surrogacy contract with Mary Beth Whitehead, a married woman with two children. The agreement was that Mary Beth would be the egg donor as well as the surrogate mother, artificially inseminated with William Stern's sperm. In exchange for $10,000, Mary Beth would consummate the pregnancy and relinquish all parental rights. Her only request was that she be sent occasional photos and letters giving updates on the baby. Throughout the pregnancy, without incident, Mary Beth gave birth to a girl, and the baby was named Melissa. After the birth, Mary Beth began to have doubts about giving Melissa away. The Sterns tried to break the agreement, with Mary Beth demanding that the Sterns return Melissa. Ultimately, the court granted custody to the Sterns and stayed the agreement after a chilling conversation between Whitehead and William Stern revealed that Mary Beth threatened to harm Melissa. To challenge this decision, Mary Beth appealed to the New Jersey Supreme Court. The appellate court finds that it is in Melissa's best interest to remain with the Sterns. However, the surrogacy agreement was completely voided and custody and visitation rights were restored to Whitehead. Regarding surrogacy, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that it was "illegal and potentially degrading to women." Although courts and legislators took a negative view of surrogacy, the case itself shed light on surrogacy as an option for creating a family, and as a result, surrogacy rates in the U.S. Since the Baby M case, national attitudes toward surrogacy have changed. This is because more states have legalized surrogacy, allowing modern families, including same-sex couples, to build and grow their own families. In addition, surrogacy clinics are now subject to a more rigorous screening process that includes physical and emotional factors. This is to ensure that surrogate mothers and egg donors do not question what they are trying to do and who has custody of the child born through this process.